The principle of ultrasonic cleaning is to make use of the physical effects such as cavitation, radiation pressure and sound flow when the ultrasonic wave propagates in the cleaning liquid to peel off the dirt on the cleaning parts mechanically and promote the chemical reaction between the cleaning liquid and the dirt to achieve the purpose of cleaning the objects. The frequency used by the ultrasonic cleaning machine can be 21-100 kHz according to the size and purpose of the cleaning object, generally 28kHz / 40 kHz. As the frequency of ultrasonic transducer increases, horn type vibrator and straight column type vibrator can be used. In the aspect of miniaturization, radial vibration and bending vibration of a disk vibrator are also used. Ultrasonic cleaning has been more and more widely used in various industries such as industry, agriculture, household equipment, electronics, automobile, rubber, printing, aircraft, food, hospital and medical research.
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There are two kinds of transducers of ultrasonic cleaner: magnetostrictive transducer and piezoelectric transducer. Because the former is expensive and has low electro acoustic efficiency, it is basically not used at present; Piezoelectric transducer is widely used in ultrasonic cleaners because of its high electro acoustic efficiency, low price and convenient installation. The structure of the piezoelectric transducer is mainly a longitudinal vibration transducer fastened by a single screw, which is composed of two piezoelectric ceramic wafers with holes in the center and front and rear cover plates.
In order to improve the working stability and efficiency of the cleaner, a half perforated structure broadband transducer is also developed. The structural feature of this transducer is that a certain number of holes with the same depth are uniformly drilled along the axial direction on the radiation surface of the transducer to form a half perforated structure. At a certain hole depth, the larger the hole diameter, the wider the frequency band; At a certain perforation area, the deeper the hole, the wider the band width. The frequency band of this transducer is more than twice as wide as that of ordinary transducers, and can reach about ± 2KHz. Its electro acoustic efficiency can still reach more than 80% within the frequency band, which is higher than that of ordinary transducers, thus overcoming the trouble of parallel connection of multiple transducers caused by the narrow frequency band of ordinary transducers in high-power ultrasonic cleaners. The semi perforated structure transducer can also reduce the lateral vibration of the radiation surface, which is beneficial to increase the radiation surface of the high-frequency transducer and improve the performance of the ultrasonic cleaning equipment.
Application of ultrasonic transducer:
The ultrasonic cleaning machine uses the ultrasonic wave to continuously propagate in the cleaning liquid to clean the dirt on the object. The ultrasonic vibration frequency is determined by the ultrasonic transducer. Different frequencies can be set according to the cleaning object to achieve the purpose of cleaning.
Ultrasonic welding machine uses ultrasonic transducer to generate ultrasonic vibration, and the friction generated by the vibration makes the welding area locally melt and then join together.
The ultrasonic motor does not contain an ultrasonic transducer, but its stator is approximated as a transducer. The ultrasonic vibration is generated by the inverse piezoelectric effect, and the rotor is driven to rotate through the friction between the stator and the rotor.